American Heart Association: Direct.

The 16-page survey centered on lifestyle, habits, family members and personal health history, and occupational and environmental exposures. Each participant in this research reported that that they had never smoked, and had been pregnant at least one time or tried to be pregnant. Individuals reported whether one or both of their parents smoked and if they lived with or caused smokers as adults. In addition they estimated the amount of time they were exposed to second hand smoke. Peppone acknowledges that the info is based upon self-reporting and that is not perfect. Nevertheless, he said ‘Women, mothers especially, have extremely accurate recall. Mothers can simply recall information like how long they breastfed, what vitamins they took during prenatal care, and childhood activities.’ Many of the ladies in the scholarly study grew up in the 1940s and 1950s, long before the doctor general issued the first warning about the hazards of using tobacco in 1964.